In Midst of China Recycling Crisis, American Cities Can Benefit

September 24, 2018 - (3 min read)

The National League of Cities is launching a municipal recycling campaign

WASHINGTON — September 25, 2018 — Today, the National League of Cities (NLC) released a new report, “Rethinking Recycling: How Cities Can Adapt to Evolving Markets,” which analyzes how city leaders can develop resilient local waste management systems in response to China’s stringent new regulations. The report, which marks the beginning of a larger effort to examine sustainability in solid waste management, is the first piece of literature to highlight how municipalities can effectively respond to – and benefit from – China’s upcoming ban.

“In the face of adversity, city leaders have historically been our nation’s problem-solvers,” said Clarence Anthony, CEO and executive director of NLC. “China’s new policy is a wakeup call that we need to think more critically about waste management, and cities now have the opportunity to strengthen domestic markets and chart a sustainable path forward.”

Historically, Chinese demand for materials to feed its manufacturing led it to purchase recyclables from all over the world, driving healthy commodity markets in paper, plastics and more. The rest of the industry relied on these sales, not taxes or fees, to fund their collection operations. But China’s new policy, National Sword, is upending this approach. Phase one, which took effect earlier this year, institutes a ban on the two most common U.S. commodity mixes, mixed paper and plastics.

The second phase, which will take effect in 2020, will be a total ban on all solid waste imports. This change could potentially diminish markets, cause market fluctuations and reversals, and lower revenues.

The U.S. exported 16 million tons of recycling commodities to China per year before the ban. In 2016, these shipments were worth $5.2 billion.

Recycling is seen as a crucial service in many communities. Many Americans recognize its importance to fighting climate change, reducing pollution and limiting municipal landfill costs. The recycling industry also accounts for 757,000 stable jobs, $36.6 billion in wages and $6.7 billion in state, local and federal tax revenues. For many cities this is also a question of equity, as poor people and people of color are disproportionately burdened by waste-contaminated soil and water.

In addition, oceanic plastic contamination has come to the fore as a major international crisis. Inefficient waste management practices have led to eight million metric tons of plastic being dumped in the oceans annually. As a result, there is an international dialogue on how cities can work with the recycling industry and other business partners to keep more plastic out of oceans.

Cities like Durango, Fort Collins and Washington, DC are profiled in the report for being proactive, utilizing partnerships and educational campaigns to both increase recycling rates and maintain local control over waste management systems.

Long-term recommendations for city leaders from the report include: 

  1. Conducting an economic analysis of your current management operations.
  2. Working with contractors.
  3. Ensuring fees and rates reflect current costs.
  4. Evaluating local policies and economic incentives.
  5. Exploring local and unconventional markets.
  6. Considering streams.
  7. Examining asset ownership and considering infrastructure investments.

The National League of Cities is dedicated to equipping city leaders with tools and information to respond to these shifts in the recycling commodities market. The report is available here.

Thousands of city leaders will gather November 7-10 in Los Angeles, California, for NLC’s annual City Summit conference. City Summit is the only national meeting that offers best practices and networking opportunities for both elected officials and city staff. Learn more at


The National League of Cities (NLC) is the voice of America’s cities, towns and villages, representing more than 200 million people across the country. NLC works to strengthen local leadership, influence federal policy and drive innovative solutions. Stay connected with NLC on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Instagram.