- There are approximately 1.5 million municipal bonds outstanding, totaling $2.9 trillion, 70% of which are owned by individual investors. Nearly 12,000 issuances completed each year.
- Municipal securities are considered to be second only to Treasuries in risk level as an investment instrument.
- Municipal securities are predominantly issued by state and local governments for governmental infrastructure and capital needs purposes. However, state and local governments and other types of government authorities may issue bonds for a variety of other purposes, which include transactions in which the proceeds are borrowed by non-profit institutions (e.g., health care and higher education) and for economic development purposes.
Federal Tax-Exemption of Municipal Securities
- Municipal securities existed prior to the formation of the federal income tax. When the federal income tax was exacted, it specifically carved out income from municipal bonds interest as exempt from federal taxation. Additionally, many states also exempt from taxation the interest from municipal securities, for bonds purchased within their state.
- Due to the reciprocal immunity principle between the federal government and state and local governments, state and local governments are prohibited from taxing the interest on bonds issued by the federal government.
- Not All Municipal Debt and Defaults Are the Same
- Municipal debt takes two forms: (1) General Obligation, or GO Debt, that is backed by the full faith and credit (taxing power) of a general purpose government like a state, city or county, and (2) Non-GO debt that is issued by governments and special entities that are usually backed by a specific revenue source (special taxes, fees or loan repayments) associated with the enterprise or borrower.
- There are two types of default: (1) the more minor "technical default," where a covenant in the bond agreement is violated, but there is no payment missed and the structure of the bond is the same, and (2) defaults where a bond payment is missed or debt is restructured at a loss to investors.
Defaults Are Rare
- Since 1970, there have been only 54 defaults (excluding technical defaults) in the municipal sector and only 4 of these defaults were from city or county governments; 78% came from health care- and housing-related projects issued by special entities. (Moody's)
- The historical default rate in the entire municipal sector is less than 1/3 of 1%, compared to a corporate default rate that exceeds 10% (Fitch). This default rate is significantly lower than the corporate bond default rate. Between 1970 and 2006, triple-A municipal bonds' default rate was 0% compared to a 0.52% default rate for triple-A corporate bonds. (Moody's)
- Except for Arkansas in 1933, no state has defaulted on its debt in the past century. It is important to note that in the 1933 Arkansas default, bondholders were paid in full.
- The recovery rate of payment for governmental debt exceeds the corporate recovery rate, with a recovery rate for general obligation and tax-backed debt at 100%.
- Reports of a growing number of defaults in the state and local government sector are not based on facts, nor current budget estimates and economic data.
Debt Service is a Small and Well-Protected Share of State and Municipal Budgets
- Debt service is typically only about 5% of the general fund budgets of state and municipal governments.
- Most debt is not issued for operating budgets, but rather for capital projects that help governments pay for public projects, such as the construction or improvement of schools, streets, highways, hospitals, bridges, water and sewer systems, ports, airports and other public works.
- Most state and municipal governments operate under a standard practice of paying their debt service first before covering all other expenses; in some cases this is required by law or ordinance.
Bankruptcy Does Not Necessarily Mean Default
- In many municipal bankruptcies, the jurisdictions have not defaulted on their debt/municipal bonds and have protected investors (including the largest in history-Orange County, CA in 1994).
Learn more about NLC's work on City Finance.
"Facts you Should Know". Joint fact sheet by NLC, NGA, NCSL, CSG, NACo, USCM, ICMA, NASBO, NASACT, GFOA, and NASRA. February 2011.